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Acting Scientist: Dara, Kim

Publisher: Kimsoft Inc.

Purpose: To explain the variable passage of time, by an observer, according to the law of relativity.

Experiment: To travel through time at a rate that differs from another observer.

Conjecture: Einstein's Theory of Relativity Proven.

Some may ask, if there are time travelers, where are all the time travelers? When in fact we are all time travelers. Of course in the truest sense of the concept we are not hyper dimensional time travelers, we are beings in a four dimensional reality. We are however traveling through time in a seemingly forward direction. It is just that each individual is traveling at a different rate forward in time.

According to the theory of relativity an object or person traveling at the speed of light would become suspended in time and to an observer as the person or object, as it passes by, would appear to be frozen in time. The perplexities of accelerating to the speed of light, and physics involved is beyond the scope of current understandings of the human conceptualization, so I will not attempt to explain how to travel the speed of light or beyond the speed of light. I am however going to explain the affect of how any change in velocity, acceleration, or deceleration affects the passage of time. You can make your own conjectures about Einstein's Twin Paradox when one twin travels at the speed of light and returns the other twin has appeared to age the amount of time that the other twin has traveled at the speed of light whom does not age at all. It is not the acceleration itself. It is the difference in velocity. The effect does however also applies to any velocities less than the speed light.

In essence we see everything as it appears in the past. If we look at our own hand, we are seeing it at was a few nano seconds ago. If we look at a mountain that is miles away we are seeing it a few micro seconds in the past. If we look at the moon we are seeing it a few seconds in the past. If we look at the sun we are seeing it a few minutes in the past, approximately how the sun looked seven minutes ago. Other stars we see years in the past, the further away the stars or galaxies, the even further in the past we see see them. This is not the affect of time itself but actually the physical properties of light. It takes a photon, wave of light, particle, sound, object, or person time to travel from one place to another.

Now let us take a loot at objects, clocks, people, and things traveling at sub light speeds from seemingly stationary to slightly accelerated velocities. Keep in mind that nothing is stationary, it is relative to what is stationary around it. We may seem to be stationary sitting in a room reading this text. When in fact we are on a planet that is revolving, that is orbiting around a sun, that is revolving and bobbing up in down and around in a galaxy, and the galaxy is moving among other galaxies which are also traveling through the universe. Going back to the individual observer, you are traveling at the same velocity as objects that are near you, the chair you sit in is passing through time at just about the same rate as you are. A chair that is in another room is passing through time at a slightly different rate, and you are passing through time at a faster rate than a person that is upstairs because the person upstairs has a higher radial velocity due to the spin of the earth. A clock runs faster at the poles of the earth than it does at the equator. Everything is traveling through time at a different rate according to it's location.

Time compression at slightly higher velocities other than stationary can also be proven, and has been. Take several atomic clocks, cesium fountain, or any other really accurate clocks. Put one at the airport, and another in an airplane. Then have the airplane take off and fly around for some amount of time, have it come back and land at the airport, then compare the two clocks. The clock at that was left at the airport will be ahead of the of the clock that was in the airplane, and the amount of difference will be greater the longer the airplane was in flight. It also affects the clock in the air plane if the airplane generally flies to the east or the west due to the rotation of the earth and the added component of the earth actually spinning added or subtracted to the velocity of the clock in the airplane. Repeat the experiment with two airplanes. Have one airplane fly around the earth east, and have the other airplane fly around the earth west, then they both return to the same airport. The clock at the airport will again be ahead of the other two clocks, and the clock that was in the airplane that traveled east will be ahead of the clock that was in the airplane that traveled west with the rotation of the earth. This affect applies to any airplane, train, car, bus submarine, bicycle, person, space ship, planet, star, galaxy, any moving object, and all objects are in fact moving in one way or another.

The velocity the object, person, or particle also affects how much time compression takes place. You could repeat the experiments again, having each airplane travel at different speeds. Say you have one airplane fly at mach one and another fly at mach two. I'm just using these speeds to keep it simple, any difference of velocity will have an affect. It is just easier to visualize it when one is traveling twice as fast as the other. The two airplanes take off at the same time, and follow the same flight path. Of course the airplane traveling mach two returns to the airport first, compare the airplane's clock with the clock left at the airport, the airport clock is ahead in time compared to the first airplane. Then the mach one airplane lands a little later, compare all three clocks, the clock at the airport is ahead of the mach two airplane, and the mach one airplane's clock is just about exactly half way in between the airport clock and the mach two airplane's clock. The variance in the mach one airplane's clock speed is generally related as half the amount of the the change in the mach two airplane's clock, but all three clocks are affected by the time of day, day of the year, year, and latitude of the the airport where and when the experiment is conducted. This is again is an effect of the location, rotation of the earth, and the earth's orbit around the sun, and so forth.

Understanding this basic fundamental of time, it can be said that all objects are traveling through time at a different rate. The variance in the amount of time is a function of the objects velocity. When in fact we are all traveling along a time line, we are all just at different points along the time line. Not all the points along the time line are traveling through time at the same rate. Some points can pass up other points, and then be passed again. Just repeat the experiment again and switch the velocities of the airplanes. Both airplanes will then have about the same time on their clocks, but the airport clock will both be ahead of them, just by an even greater amount than before though, almost one and a half the amount that was on the mach two airplane's clock the first time.. The time on the clocks is accumulative. We all vary our "self" clocks our whole life, by where we went, and how fast we went there. So if we sit stationary on the pole of the earth our whole life you age faster than anybody else does. If you want to not age so fast run around the top story of a building on the equator your whole life, or fly west in an airplane. It's even better if you fly around the equator west. If you can not afford the plane ticket, run around on a mountain on the equator. That is about as close as we can get to the Twin Paradox for now, short of putting one twin on the north pole at birth, and the other in a westerly orbiting satellite.

Okay so may not be convinced, some people still think the earth is flat too. Here are some proofs that the earth is a sphere. Look at a lunar eclipse and make and make shadow puppets on the moon, maybe that was not a very good proof. Here is one that is, a free swinging pendulum. That is just like the one in a clock, except it can swing freely in a circle too. That is it rotates around in a circle as it swings back in forth. At the pole of the earth it will make one complete rotation in the circle per day. At the equator it will swing back and forth with no rotation. At any latitude in between the pole and the equator in will rotate according to the latitude, rather it be in the northern hemisphere or southern hemisphere it will rotate in that direction accordingly. That is clockwise rotation in the southern hemisphere and counter-clockwise rotation in the the northern hemisphere. How ever in some locations it will rotate more than one rotation per day, this is due to the corrolis effect, none the less it is still rotating.

You may be asking why I have gotten off the subject of time, when in fact I am talking about the fundamental properties of measuring time again. A pendulum is a simple way of measuring the passage of time. A pendulum with a length of about 32 inches will swing back in forth once per second. It does not matter how much weight is on the pendulum. It is the swinging that interests me. As the mass of the pendulum is affected by gravity, the rate of swinging is not. The oscillation of the pendulum is dependent on it''s length. A shorter pendulum swings back and forth faster than a long pendulum. The pendulum is a moving object, just like the airplane, it leaves and returns to the same point every flight. Only a longer pendulum is traveling like the faster airplane and a shorter pendulum is traveling like the slower airplane. The longer pendulum is therefore swinging with the same acceleration due to gravity as the shorter pendulum is. The only affect of gravity on the oscillation is the velocity of the bottom of a swinging pendulum's mass which depends on it's length, not it's mass. The longer pendulum has to swing farther; it has a higher velocity as it is swinging. So time passes slower on the longer pendulum than it does on the shorter pendulum. Acceleration being equal on both of two different length pendulums, velocity and the perceived passage of time is not equal.

Proof of this is to have the clocks be placed at the bottom of two different length pendulums. An atomic clock that is swinging back and forth on a longer pendulum will run behind a clock that is swinging back in forth on a shorter pendulum, which will run behind an atomic clock that is stationary and not swinging back in forth. The stationary clock, object, or person will always be ahead in time of a clock, object, or person that is moving relative to the stationary clock, object, person, particle, airplane, or what ever you look at. It comes down to a question of what is moving, and of course the observer is relative to the other moving person, object, or particle. Put yourself in the place of the swinging pendulum, I think we have all swung on a swing in our childhood, so we have all experienced this. You probably just never stopped and thought about it tough. If we could swing back and forth near speed of light while watching a clock on the ground in front of us, and the watch on our arm, then we would see our watch run at a constant rate. The clock in front of us would how ever seem to stop as we were swinging backwards, then run real fast as we were swinging forward. When you got off of the swing the difference in your watch and the clock that was left on the ground in front of you would be how ever long you had been swinging according to the stationary clock that was left on the ground. Of course we never noticed this because as we all tried to swing at the speed of light, in actuality we were not moving much faster than the stationary clock compared to the speed of light. Never the less the change in time is measurable with a set of very accurate atomic clocks even at this very slow speed. I'm still waiting for my atomic watch, besides the fact that the swinging at this speed would put you in orbit around the universe, it is just a postulation.

The exact compression of time is a linear function of the velocity. A stationary object with zero velocity would pass through time at the fastest rate, being one second per second. A object traveling at the speed of light would seize to pass through time, photons being the only object that I know of that can do this, zero seconds per second. Photons do have mass, because gravity bends their path. At any velocity between stationary and the speed of just apply the linear function. For a person to travel at the seed of light they would have to be converted into photons and be placed in the mass of the universe. So there you have it, how to travel the speed of light, become light.  In fact everything is relative, it just depends on the velocity you are traveling at.  Of course the only real way to prove the law of relativity is to be converted to photons.  My conjecture is in the theory of relativity time dialation is law at all velocities less than the speed of light.

Equasion: If velocities are less than the speed of light then the change in time per second equals the differences in the  velocities as a function of the speed of light expressed  as one.

Cartoon:  Weee! Weeeee!  Look at Meee!  I'm swinging at the speed of light!